Thursday, August 13, 2009

H1 N1 VIRUS (SWINE FLU)




What is H1N1 (swine flu)? MORE NEWS IN http://www.swinefluindia.com/


H1N1 (referred to as swine flu early on) is a new influenza virus causing illness in people. This new virus was first detected in people in April 2009 in the United States. Other countries, including Mexico and Canada, have reported people sick with this new virus. This virus is spreading from person-to-person, probably in much the same way that regular seasonal influenza viruses spread.


Why is this new H1N1 virus sometimes called swine flu?

This virus was originally referred to as swine flu because laboratory testing showed that many of the genes in this new virus were very similar to influenza viruses that normally occur in pigs in North America. But further study has shown that this new virus is very different from what normally circulates in North American pigs. It has two genes from flu viruses that normally circulate in pigs in Europe and Asia and avian genes and human genes. Scientists call this a “quadruple reassortant” virus.


Do pigs carry this virus and can I catch this virus from a pig?

At this time, there is no evidence that swine in the United States are infected with this new virus. However, there are flu viruses that commonly cause outbreaks of illness in pigs. Most of the time, these viruses do not infect people, but influenza viruses can spread back and forth between pigs and people




In pigs influenza infection produces fever, lethargy, sneezing, coughing, difficulty breathing and decreased appetite.In some cases the infection can cause abortion. Although mortality is usually low (around 1-4%),the virus can produce weight loss and poor growth, causing economic loss to farmers.Infected pigs can lose up to 12 pounds of body weight over a 3 to 4 week period.

In humans

Main symptoms of swine flu in humans


Direct transmission of a swine flu virus from pigs to humans is occasionally possible (called zoonotic swine flu). In all, 50 cases are known to have occurred since the first report in medical literature in 1958, which have resulted in a total of six deaths.[66]Of these six people, one was pregnant, one had leukemia, one had Hodgkin disease and two were known to be previously healthy. Despite these apparently low numbers of infections, the true rate of infection may be higher, since most cases only cause a very mild disease, and will probably never be reported or diagnosed.



Prevention of human to human transmission


Influenza spreads between humans through coughing or sneezing and people touching something with the virus on it and then touching their own nose or mouth.[77] Swine flu cannot be spread by pork products, since the virus is not transmitted through food.[77] The swine flu in humans is most contagious during the first five days of the illness although some people, most commonly children, can remain contagious for up to ten days. Diagnosis can be made by sending a specimen, collected during the first five days for analysis.[78]


Recommendations to prevent spread of the virus among humans include using standard infection control against influenza. This includes frequent washing of hands with soap and water or with alcohol-based hand sanitizers, especially after being out in public.[79] Chance of transmission is also reduced by disinfecting household surfaces, which can be done effectively with a diluted chlorine bleach solution.[80]
Experts agree that hand-washing can help prevent viral infections, including ordinary influenza and the swine flu virus. Influenza can spread in coughs or sneezes, but an increasing body of evidence shows small droplets containing the virus can linger on tabletops, telephones and other surfaces and be transferred via the fingers to the mouth, nose or eyes. Alcohol-based gel or foam hand sanitizers work well to destroy viruses and bacteria. Anyone with flu-like symptoms such as a sudden fever, cough or muscle aches should stay away from work or public transportation and should contact a doctor for advice.
Social distancing is another tactic. It means staying away from other people who might be infected and can include avoiding large gatherings, spreading out a little at work, or perhaps staying home and lying low if an infection is spreading in a community. Public health and other responsible authorities have action plans which may request or require social distancing actions depending on the severity of the outbreak.


Vaccination


Vaccines are available for different kinds of Swine Flu. Although the current trivalent influenza vaccine is unlikely to provide protection against the new 2009 H1N1 strain,vaccines against the new strain are being developed and could be ready as early as June 2009.

FREE VISA TRAVELLING COUNTRIES FOR INDIANS





It’s over 65+ countries to which we can land with our passports


The following is the result of my research for the countries which permit an Indian passport-holder to enter without a visa or byobtaining a visa upon arrival.


ALBANIA


Visa required, which can be obtained on arrival if holdingconfirmation from Albanian Ministry of Interior stating that visa willbe available on arrival. Confirmation must be obtained beforedeparture to Albania.


AZERBAIJAN


Visa required, which can be issued on arrival for a max. stay of 30days. An invitation is not necessary but it is recommended to hold adocument that shows the purpose of the visit. Visa is only valid forthe cities listed in the visa.

BAHRAIN


If travelling for business purposes visa can be obtained on arrival,but this is subject to Immigration evaluation.


BERMUDA


Visa not required.Bermuda Immigration officers will decide on max. period of stay (up to6 months) depending on reason for travel. Stays exceeding 6 monthsrequire application for residency in person.


BHUTAN


Visa not required for a max. stay of 2 weeks, provided permit isissued upon arrival by Immigration Department.


BURUNDI


Visa required. However, visa can be obtained on arrival, if no diplomaticrepresentation of Burundi is located in country of origin.


CAMBODIA


Visa required. However, visa can be obtained on arrival, if coming for:- touristic purposes for a stay of max. 1 month.- business purposes for a stay of max. 1 month.


CAMEROON


Visa required. Visa on arrival can only be issued to those holding a priorapproval from Le Diligue General de L’Immigration.


CANADA


Visa required.If entering from the U.S.A. with a used single entry visa, the visitormay re-enter without obtaining a new Canadian visa, provided the I-94from the U.S.A. and the Canadian port stamps are still valid.


CAPE VERDE ISLANDS


Visa not required if:- Passenger was a former national of Cape Verde Isl., incl. wife, husband or children provided holding proof thereof;- travelling as tourist in organized group and holding Certificado Colectivo de Identidade et Viagem (no limit for number of tourists).Individual passengers coming from countries where no diplomaticrepresentation of Cape Verde is established may obtain visa onarrival.


COOK ISLANDS


If visit is solely for touristic purposes visa not required for a stayof max. 31 days.If visit is for business purposes (which may include acting for or onbehalf of a person/firm established outside Cook Islands) visarequired (which can be issued on arrival), for a stay of max. 21 days.


COSTA RICA

Visa not required for a stay of 30 days.


CUBA


Visa required.If coming for touristic purposes and holding Tourist Card(”Tarjeta del Turista”): visa not required.


DJIBOUTI


Visa required, which can be obtained on arrival provided holdingreturn ticket, for a max. stay of 1 month.


DOMINICA


Visa not required for stay of max. 21 days.


EGYPT


Visa required. However, a 14 days visa -free of charge- can be obtained onarrival, if entering Egypt via South Sinai (through Sant Katherine,Sharm El Sheik or Taba airports), provided:- remaining in South Sinai resorts; and- not continuing to any other city in Egypt.

ERITREA


Visa required, which can be obtained on arrival for a stay of max. 1month (renewable for another 2 months), provided request has been madeby sponsor to Eritrea Immigration at least 48 hours before arrival.

ETHIOPIA


Visa required, which can be obtained on arrival for a max. stay of 3months if attending African Union meetings and holding officialletters pertaining to the travel. In some other cases visa can also beobtained if coming for business purposes.


FIJI


Visa not required. On arrival a visitor’s permit can be obtained for astay of max. 4 months.

GEORGIA


Visa required.Visa (of various types and length of stays) can be obtained on arrivalat the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Visa Dept. at the airport. However,one months notice of arrival is required.


GIBRALTAR


Visa required. However, if holding:- a multiple entry visa (valid for at least 1 year) to the United Kingdom; OR- a passport endorsed “Certificate of Entitlement to the Right of Abode in the United Kingdom” visa not required.


GRENADA


Visa not required for a stay of max. 3 months.


GUAM


If arriving directly from U.S. Mainland, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Ricoor U.S. Virgin Islands, no entry documents required due to noimmigration control.


GUINEA-BISSAU


Visa required.If arriving from a country without representation of Guinea-Bissau,visa applications by letter to be made 14 days prior to arrival to:Comissariado de Estado da Seguranca Nacional e Ordem Publica daRepublica da Guinea-Bissau (State Directorate of National Security andPublic order of the Republic of Guinea-Bissau). The visa will then beavailable at the airport of Guinea-Bissau.


HAITI


Visa not required for a stay of max. 3 months.

HONG KONG


Visa not required for stay of max. 14 days.


INDONESIA


Visa required, which can be obtained on arrival for a max. stay of 30days provided:- passport contains at least one unused visa page for the visa-on-arrival sticker, which covers entire passport page; AND- holding ticket and other documents for return/onward journey.


IRAN


Visa required. However, it can be issued on arrival provided:- coming for tourist purposes only for a max. stay of 7 days; OR- passenger has been introduced by means of a letter from valid organization or government at least two days prior to arrival, for a max. stay of 72 hours.


ISRAEL


Visa required. However, if travelling in a group of 10 or more passengersand holding prior approval from Ministry of Interior visa can beobtained on arrival.


JAMAICA

Visa not required, for a max. stay of 14 days.


KAZAKHSTAN


Visa required.A visa can be issued on arrival at Almaty/Astana airports (providedpre-arranged and approved by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs ofKazakhstan) for both private and business purposes, for a stay of max.one month.


KENYA


Visa required.It is possible for a visa for a max. stay of 3 months to beissued on arrival. However, this will cause considerable delay.


KOREA (REPUBLIC)

Visa required.However, visa not required for a stay of max. 30 days provided:A. holding visa for Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand or U.S.A. and travelling to or from these countries; ORB. having visited Korea (Rep.) 4 times within the last 2 years or 10 times or more in total.


KUWAIT


Visa required. However, visa can be obtained on arrival if coming for vacationor leisure for a stay of max. 1 month, provided:- having sponsor in Kuwait holding the original visa; and- holding confirmation from transporting airline that visa is available on arrival.


KYRGYZSTAN


Visa required.Visa can be issued on arrival for a stay of max. one month when coming from:- countries with Kyrgyzstan representation, provided holding confirmation from Kyrgyzstan authorities;- countries without Kyrgyzstan representation, provided a sponsor can announce the passenger(s) to the authorities.


LEBANON


Visa can be obtained on arrival under certain conditions to:- businessmen and other top professionals residing in a GCC member country (see TIRGL/GCC ); OR- businessmen with prior approval from Lebanese Immigration; OR- tourist groups.


LIBERIA


Visa required.If arriving from a country without diplomatic representation ofLiberia: visa issue on arrival possible if holding telex confirmationfrom the station manager of delivering airline.


MACAO


Visa not required for a stay of max. 30 days.


MADAGASCAR

Visa required. A 90 days visa can be obtained on arrival.


MALAYSIA


Visa required. However, if coming for touristic purposes, visa can be obtainedon arrival, for a max. stay of 30 days.


MALDIVES


Visa required, which can be obtained on arrival for:1. a max. stay of 30 days, provided holding: – hotel confirmation; and – sufficient funds to cover stay; and – onward/return ticket for next destination.; OR2. a stay of more than 30 days, to a max. stay of 90 days, provided passenger has: – a local sponsor, who must inform Immigration at Male at least 1 day prior to passengers arrival; and – onward/return ticket for next destination.


MAURITIUS


Visa not required for a max. stay of 15 days for touristic purposes only.


MICRONESIA


Visa not required for a stay of max. 30 days, provided coming fortouristic or visitor purposes.


MOLDOVA


Visa required, which can be obtained on arrival at Chisinau Airport provided:- arriving from a country without diplomatic representation of Moldova.


MONTSERRAT

Visa not required for a max. stay of:- 3 months, provided travelling with passport;- 14 days when travelling with other documents.


MOZAMBIQUE

Visa required. However, if coming for touristic or business purposes, visa canbe obtained on arrival (at airport only).


NEPAL


Visa not required.


NIUE


Visa not required for a stay up to 30 days provided holding:- confirmed return/onward ticket; AND- documents required for return/onward journey; AND- sufficient funds.


NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS


Visa required. However, if holding U.S. entry visa, visa not requiredfor a max. stay of 30 days, provided U.S. visa:- is valid for 60 days from entry date into CNMI; AND- allows re-entry back into the U.S.A. on departure.


PALAU ISLANDS


Visa required, which can be obtained on arrival for a stay of max. 30 days.
PUERTO RICOIf arriving directly from Mainland U.S.A., Alaska, Guam, Hawaii orU.S. Virgin Islands no entry documents required due to no immigrationcontrol.


QATAR


Visa required.The following visas can be obtained on arrival: – 14 day tourist visa, provided application submitted to airport immigration at least 24 hours before arrival by any of the registered hotels in Doha. Passenger must also hold proof of confirmed hotel reservation and at least USD 1,400.- or any major credit card; OR – 7 day business visa can be issued at Doha airport provided notification received at least 48 hours prior to arrival.


SAMOA


Visa not required if holding a visitor’s permit, which can be obtainedon arrival for a stay of max. 60 days.


SAO TOME & PRINCIPE


Visa required.Visa may only be granted on arrival provided prior arrangements havebeen made by transporting carrier up to 24 hours prior to flightdeparture. Max. stay of one month allowed.


SEYCHELLES


Visa not required as Visitor’s Permit for 1 month (depends on validityof ticket) will be issued on arrival provided holding:- onward/return ticket or otherwise ticket must be purchased on arrival; AND- sufficient funds (USD 150.- per day) and proof of accommodation during stay.


SIERRA LEONE


Visa required. However, visa on arrival is also possible underfollowing conditions:- no diplomatic representation of Sierra Leone at point of origin; AND- sponsor or contact person in Sierra Leone should arrange Landing Permit with the Principal Immigration Officer. Details of such Landing Permit should be given to the Station Manager of transporting airline at least 48 hours prior to arrival.


SRI LANKA


Visa required, which can be obtained on arrival for a touristic stayof max. 30 days.


ST. KITTS-NEVIS


Visa not required for a stay of max. 3 months.


ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES


Visa not required for a max. stay of 1 month.


TANZANIA


Visa required, which can be obtained on arrival.


THAILAND


Visa required.Visa can be obtained on arrival (ONLY at Bangkok, Chiang Mai,Chiang Rai, Hat Yai, Phuket, Samui Int’l, Sukhothai, SuratThani, Utapao airports) for a stay of max. 15 days, provided:- coming for touristic purposes; AND- passport is valid at least 6 months; AND- holding onward/return ticket; AND- holding USD 250.- per person or USD 500.- per family.


TIMOR LESTE


Entry Permit can be obtained on arrival for a max. stay of 30 days.


TOGO


Visa required, which can be obtained on arrival for max. 7 days.


TURKS & CAICOS ISL.


Visa not required for a stay of max. 30 days.


TUVALU


Visa required, which can be obtained on arrival for a stay of max. one month.


UGANDA


Visa required, which can be obtained on arrival.


VANUATU


Visa not required for a max. stay of 30 days.


VIRGIN ISLANDS (BRITISH)


Visa not required for a stay of max. 30 days.


Source: QuantasThis search engine and database is provided and managed by theInternational Air Transport Association (IATA).http://www.qantas.com.au/info/flying/beforeYouTravel/visaHealth

Wednesday, August 12, 2009

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